动词不定式用法小结

动词不定式用法

动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句中不能独立作谓语。但动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词特征,在句中可以作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、表语和状语等多种成分。另外,动词不定式具有动词特点,可以有自己的宾语和状语,组成动词不定式短语。动词不定式的肯定形式是to +do ;其否定形式是not to+do 。

下面以动词不定式在句中的作用来予以详细说明。

1.作主语

可以直接作主语。如: To see is to believe.

但在英语中,常用it 作形式主语,真正的主语即动词不定式放在后面。如:

It's wrong to play tricks on other people.

It's our duty to keep our environment clean and tidy.

点击规律:动词不定式在句中作主语时,常放在It is +adj .(形容词)+to do sth.或 It is +n .(名词)+to do sth .句型中,it 仅作形式主语。

2.作宾语

a .want ,decide ,agree 等动词后面跟并且只能跟不定式。如:

We agreed to start early.

She wants to be a doctor.

b .love ,like ,begin ,start ,hate ,prefer 等词后面可以接不定式。

点击规律:上述动词后面除接不定式外,还可以接动名词,意思无很大区别。

提示板:like doing指经常性动作,而like to do指一次性的动作。如:

I like swimming,but I don't like to swim now.我喜欢游泳,但我现在不想游。

c .stop ,forget ,remember ,go on ,try 等词或短语后面可以接不定式。

点击规律:上述动词后面接不定式和接动名词意思大不相同。

提示板:

1)stop to do sth.:停止一件事,去做另一件事。

stop doing sth.:停止正在做的事。

例句:When the teacher came in,the students stopped talking;when he came out,the students stopped to talk. 当老师走进来时,学生们停止说话;当老师走出去时,学生们又开始说话。

2)思考:forget ,remember ,go on,try 等词或短语后面接不定式和动名词用法有何区别?

d .在find /feel +it +adj .+to do sth.句型中,it 是形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的动词不定式。如: The man downstairs found it difficult to get to sleep.

I feel it easy to recite the text.

点击规律:某些动词或短语后面既可以接动词不定式作宾语,又可接动名词作宾语,二者用法上的区别可以通过造句子加以区分,如上面stop 例句。

3.作宾语补足语

a .tell ,ask ,want ,order ,teach ,invite ,warn ,wish ,help ,get ,wish ,help 等词后面常接不定式作宾补。如:

I tell him not to go there by bus .

Edison's mother taught him to read and write.

b .let ,make ,have ,see ,hear ,feel ,watch , notice 后面接不带to 的不定式作宾补。如:

The boss makes them work 16 hours a day. I heard her sing in the next room.

提示板:若变成被动语态,在上述结构中,不定式符号to 要加上。如:

They are made to work 16 hours a day by the boss.

She was heard to sing in the next room.

4.作定语:放在被修饰的名词、代词后面

例句:I have a lot of work to do.

The doctor said he could do nothing to help the boy.

点击规律:动词不定式若在句中作定语,常放在被修饰的名词、代词之后。

提示板:如果动词不定式和前面所修饰的词构成动宾关系,若动词是不及物动词,切记不要忘掉介词。如: I have a small bedroom to live in.

Have you got some pens to write with?

5.表语:放在连系动词be 后面

例句:His wish is to become a scientist.

The first important thing is to save the soldiers' lives.

当务之急是抢救战士们的生命。

点击规律:动词不定式在句中作表语时,通常对连系动词前面的名词进行诠释说明。

6.作状语

a .目的状语:放在go ,come ,use ,live ,in order等词后面。如:

I come to see you.

He runs fast in order to get there in time.

b .原因状语:放在sorry ,glad ,surprised , disappointed ,excited 等词后面。如:

I am glad to see you here.

I am sorry to trouble you.

c .作结果状语。如:

Some of the apples are hard to reach.

The room is large enough to hold 1000 people.

7.与what ,who ,whose ,when ,where , how 等疑问词连用,作宾语、宾语补足语、主语等。 如: I don't know what to do next.(宾语)

He taught us how to use the computer.(宾语补足语)

It's still a question how to get there.(主语)

【模拟试题】(答题时间:30分钟)

一. 选择填空:

1. He asked me ________ here earlier.

A. come B. to come C. coming D. came

2. Please tell him _______ on the wall.

A. don’t draw B. to not draw C. not to draw D. not draw

3. He wanted ________ a cup of tea.

A. to have B. having C. have D. had

4. I’d like ________ a word with you.

A. had B. having C. to have D. have

5. I came here _______ my uncle.

A. saw B. to see C. seeing D. to be seen

6. The man refused (拒绝)________ back his words.

A. to take B. taking C. took D. takes

7. I can let you ________ one ticket.

A. to have B. have C. having D. had

8. We often heard him _________ in his room.

A. to sing B. sings C. sang D. sing

9. He was made ________ day and night.

A. work B. working C. to work D. worked

10. He stopped ______ a look, but saw nothing.

A. having B. to have C. have D. had

11. My father was too angry _________ a word.

A. to say B. not to say C. to saying D. didn’t say

12. My brother was old enough ________ to school.

A. went B. goes C. going D. to go

13. It is time ________ him ________ supper.

A. of, to have B. for, to have C. of, having D. for, to has

14. It’s very kind _______ you ______ me.

A. of, to help B. for, to help C. of, help D. of, helping

15. It’s important _________ our classroom clean every day.

A. kept B. to keep C. to give D. keep

16. Before liberation (解放)they had no chance _______ to school.

A. went B. go C. to go D. to be gone

17. He said he had an important meeting ________.

A. attend B. would attend C. attending D. to attend

18. Please give me a piece of paper ________.

A. to write B. to write on C. writing D. to write it

19. I don’t know _______.

A. what do B. what will do C. what to do D. do what

20. Your radio needs ________.

A. to be repaired B. to repair C. repaired D. to repairing

21. My wish is ________ a teacher.

A. becoming B. to become C. become D. became

22. I want ________ him a letter now.

A. to write B. not write C. write D. wrote

23. It took us three days _________ the trees.

A. plant B. planted C. to plant D. plants

24. Why not ________ here _______ me?

A. to come, to see B. come, to see C. came, seeing D. come, see

25. He wishes me ______ my best _________ hard at English.

A. to do, to work B. doing, working C. to do, working D. do, work

26. Please tell me ________ her. I have something _______ her.

A. where to find, telling B. where to find, to tell

C. where can find, to tell D. where finding, telling

27. How happy they are ______ each other again!

A. to see B. see C. saw D. being seen

28. They decided (决心)_______ a letter ______ their thanks.

A. to write, expressing(表达)

B. writing, express

C. write, expressed

D. to write, to express

29. The officer ordered (命令)him _______ down _________ a rest.

A. lying, have B. to lie, to have C. to lie, having D. lie, had

30. The headmaster called on (号召)us ______ hard for our country.

A. to work B. worked C. work D. to working

二. 根据上句意思完成下句,使两句意思相近或相同,每空一词。

1. He was so angry that he couldn’t say anything.

He was too angry _______ ______ anything.

2. I don’t know when we will have the meeting.

I don’t know when _______ _______ the meeting.

3. He said he would write a letter.

He said he would have a letter ______ _______.

4. That you read English in the morning is very important.

It is very important _____ you _____ _______ English in the morning.

5. He was so strong that he could lift the stone. (石头)

He was strong _____ _____ ______ the stone.

6. His father went to Beijing for his holiday.

His father went to Beijing ________ ______ his holiday.

7. They got up early so that they could get there in time.

They got up early _____ ______ _______ ______ there in time.

8. His brother decided that he would buy the book.

His brother decided _____ _______ the book.

9. He hopes that he can visit the Great Wall.

He hopes _____ _______ the Great Wall.

10.I saw him go into the room.

He was seen _____ ______ into the room.

11.We made him work five hours a day.

He was made _____ ______ five hours a day.

12.Do you want to say anything for yourself?

Do you have anything _____ _____ for yourself?

13.We don’t know what we shall do next.

We don’t know what ____ _______ next.

14.I’m very sorry on hearing the bad news.

I’m very sorry _____ _______ the bad news.

15.He stopped and had a look at me.

He stopped _____ ______ a look at me.

16.I helped him with his English.

I helped him _____ ______ English.

17.My father promised (许诺)that he would buy me a bike.

My father promised ____ ______ me a bike.

18.The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it.

The box is too heavy ______ me _______ _______.

19.“Lie down! ”the boy said to his dog.

The boy ordered his dog ______ ______ down.

20.“Don’t make any noise, ”she said to me.

She told me ______ _______ ________ any noise.

一:形式主语或形式宾语it

那些未曾去过那个小村庄的人很难描绘出它的美丽。( it )

It is very hard for those who haven’t been to the small village to describe its beauty.

我发现很难与那些一贯固执己见的人合作。(it )

I find it hard/it is hard to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.

常需要用形式主语来翻译的情况

1、It’s + adj. + of/for sb. to do sth.

Eg. It’s so careless of you to make so many spelling mistakes in the English exam

2、It so happened that…

Eg. It so happened that I didn’t have any money on me.

3、It’s reported/ believed/ estimated that…

It’s estimated that about 30 passengers were killed in the bus accident.

4、在强调句it is + that 中

Eg. It’s because of his perseverance that led to his late success.

5、在含有某些形容词的句子中,如important ,necessary ,impossible, natural, common, strange等。

6、It’s likely that…

Eg. It’s likely that John won’t come though he has promised do.


相关范文

  1. 英语动词不定式的完成式用法小结

    英语动词不定式完成式在使用语境中的学习与考查 江苏省沛县湖西中学 鹿俊先 221611 综观近年的英语高考试题,我们可以看到题目的设置往往强调语言知识在特定语境中的使用,把语言知识放在了语用层面上,即考察实际应用知识的能力. 英语动词不定式的完成式,即(to) have +动词的过去分词形式,是中学 ...

  2. 英语语法口诀大全

    巧记英语语法口诀 英语语法不容易记,但借助语法口诀,却可起到事半功倍的效果. 英语语法的叙述,讲究科学性,追求严谨.故而中学生看起来,不免有些枯燥,看不下去.为此,全国各地的师生们编写了不少英语语法口诀,以帮助记忆.收集起来,大致有20余首. 英语学习顺口溜 动词为纲"滚雪球" ...

  3. 农村初中生英语作文常见错误及其对策浅谈

    农村初中生英语作文常见错误及其对策浅谈 久庆初中 钟明琼 < 英语课程标准>要求初中学生达到英语五级.也就是要学生有较明确的学习动机和积极主动的学习态度.能就日常生活的各种话题与他人交换信息并陈述自己的意见.能根据提示起草和修改小作文.能与他人合作,解决问题并报告结果,共同完成学习任务. ...

  4. 词的用法口诀

    一.定冠词的用法口诀 特指双熟悉,上文已提及: 世上独无二,序数最高级: 某些专有名,习语及乐器. 二.不用冠词用法口诀 下列情况应免冠,代词限定名词前: 专有名词不可数,学科球类三餐饭: 复数名词表泛指,两节星期月份前: 颜色语种和国名,称呼习语及头衔. 二. 三. 定冠词用法小结口诀 1. 有水 ...

  5. 人教版高中英语各册书知识点

    学乐教育每一步 关注成长每一天 咨询电话:020---28059555.85588126 广东省普通高校招生统考大纲及细节说明:英语 根据< 广东省普通高校招生考试改革调整方案> (粤教考[ 2008 ] 28 号),广东省普通高考英语科考试从2011 年始笔试试卷不包括听力试题,单独进 ...

  6. 系动词有哪些

    都是动词啊!系动词也是动词嘛 系动词 系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况.性质.特征等情况. 说明: 有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如: He fell i ...

  7. 不定式的被动形式

    一.学习目标:The Passive Infinitive 二.重点难点:不定式被动形式的构成和用法 三.使用说明及学法指导 1. 学生在老师的PPT引导下复习不定式的被动形式:(30分钟) 2. 学生独立完成当堂练习部分:(10分钟) 3.学生课后复习导学案和完成作业来巩固本节课所复习内容. 四. ...

  8. 高中英语语法--动名词的用法

    Section IV:Grammar [高效学习指导案] A 级目标: 动名词作主语和宾语的基本用法. B 级目标: 对比动名词与不定式作主语和宾语时的不同. C 级目标: 动名词的复合结构. 自我确定目标: (级别) 理 由 学习方式 [难点问题预设]: 1.教学难点: 动名词与不定式作主语和宾语 ...

  9. 表示"时间"与"地点"意义的介词用法小结

    介词是一种用来表示词与词.句与句之间关系的词.介词虽小,功能却很重要,是考试的重要考点之一,用错了介词,一个短语或句子的意思就可能完全不同.本文将主要表示"时间"与"地点"意义的常用介词做了梳理和归类,希望能对广大师生有些帮助. 一.表"时间&quo ...